Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में Change करने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम

Direct से Indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम

किसी की कही गई शब्दों या बात को हम दूसरे व्यक्ति को दो तरीकों से बता सकते हैं। पहला तरीका ये है किहम कहने वाले शब्दों या बात को दूसरे व्यक्ति को जैसे के तैसे ही बता सकते हैंऔर दूसरा तरीका ये है कि कहने वाले शब्दों को हम दूसरे व्यक्ति को अपने शब्दों में उसके कहे गये अर्थ को बता दें कहें।"

अर्थात "दूसरे शब्दों में कहे गये शब्दों को अपने शब्दों में कहें परन्तु शब्दों का अर्थ बिलकुल बदलना नहीं चाहिएयही शब्द या वाक्य को ही अप्रत्यक्ष कथन Indirect Speech कहते हैं।"

जब हम प्रत्यक्ष कथन Direct Speech को अप्रत्यक्ष कथन Indirect Speech में परिवर्तन करते हैं तो हमें कुछ नियमों का पालन करना आवश्यक होता है जिससे अप्रत्यक्ष कथन Indirect Speech बनाना आसान हो जाता है। आइये इस नियम को अच्छे से उदाहरण के साथ समझें |

Direct से indirect बनाने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम

Direct - He said, "I am going to America now."
Indirect - He said that he was going to America then.

1. Direct Speech के दो भाग होते है - Reporting Verb तथा Reported Speech
(i)  Reporting Verb
Inverted commas के बाहर जो वाक्य  होता हैउसकी  Verb  Reporting verb कहलाती है 
जैसे- He said, "I am going to America now." इस वाक्य में  said Reporting verb है।
(ii)  Reported Speech
Inverted commas के अंदर जो वाक्य रहता हैउसे Reported Speech कहते  है।
जैसे- He said, "I am going to America now." इस वाक्य में "I am going to America now." Reported Speech है।

2. Change of Pronouns
Direct से Indirect बनाते समय  Reported speech के  Pronouns को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से प्रवर्तित करते हैं;
1. First Person को Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार  प्रवर्तित करते हैं।
2. Second Person को Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार प्रवर्तित करतेहैं।
3. Third Person के Reporting Verb में कोई भी बदलाव नहीं होता  है।

Table:
Person
Nominative   Case
Objective Case
Ist Person
I
My
Ist Person
We
Our
2nd Person
You
Your
3rd Person
He
His
3rd Person
She
Her
3rd Person
They
Their

Examples :
Direct  -  She says to Kiran, "I will teach you in the class."
Indirect   - She tells Kiran that she will teach her in the class.".
Direct  -  Rohan said to Seema, "I will give my text-book to you."
Indirect   - Rohan told Seema that he would give his text-book to her.
Direct  -  They said to me, "We have given our books  to you"
Indirect   - They told me that they had given their books  to me.
Direct  -  You said, “I have done my home work”.
Indirect   - You said that you had done your home work.
Direct  -  The father said to me, “You have not done your work well”.
Indirect   - The  father  told me that I had not done my work well.
Direct  -  I said to you, “He should not deposit money in the bank ”.
Indirect   - I told you that he should not deposit money in the bank.

3. Change of Tense
1. Direct  से  Indirect बनाते  समय यदि  Reporting verb में Present tense या Future tense हो तो Reported speech के Tense में कोई भी बदलाव नहीं होता हैकेवल आवश्यकतानुसार  Pronoun को Change किया जाता है।
2. यदि Reporting verb, Past tense में हो तो Reported speech के Tense को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से परिवर्तन होता है;
3. यदि  Direct Speech Simple Present Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Simple Past Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
4. यदि  Direct Speech Present Imperfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Imperfect Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
5. यदि  Direct Speech Present Perfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को   Past Perfect Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
6. यदि  Direct Speech Present Perfect Continuous Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Perfect Continuous Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
7. यदि  Direct Speech Simple Past Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past PerfectTense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
8. यदि  Direct Speech Past Imperfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech को  Past Perfect Continuous Tense में परिवर्तित करते हैं
9. यदि  Direct Speech Past Perfect Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा
10. यदि  Direct Speech Past Perfect Continuous Tense में हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा
Table:
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Simple Present
Simple Past
Present Indefinite
Past Indefinite
Present Continuous
Past Continuous
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Indefinite
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect
No change of Tense
Past Perfect Continuous
No change of Tense

Examples:
Direct - Rohan said to his father, "I love you."
Indirect -  Rohan told his father that he loved him
Direct - Nyla said to Archana, "I am reading your book."
Indirect - Nyla told Archana that she was reading his book.
Direct - Meena says, "I am not well"
Indirect  - Meena tells that she is not well.
Direct  - She will say to her husband, "Mohan did not treat his friend fairly."
Indirect  - She will tell her husband that Mohan did not treat his friend fairly.
Direct  - She Said, "I know your friend very well.”
Indirect  - She said that she knew his friend very well..
Direct  - Mohit said to Ram, "You have been writing  since morning."
Indirect - Mohit told Ram that he had been writing  cricket since morning.
Direct  - Meera said to Kamal, "You have called me yesterday."
Indirect   - Shalini told Rajeev that he had called her the previous day.
Direct  - The Manager said to me, "You will get your salary tomorrow."
Indirect  - The Manager told me that I would get my salary  the next day.

4. Change of Modals /Helping Verbs
1.  Direct  से  Indirect बनाते  समय यदि Reporting verb, Past tense में हो तो Reported speech के  Modals /Helping Verbs को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से प्रवर्तित करते है।       
2. यदि  Direct Speech में Shall दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Should में परिवर्तित करते हैं
3. यदि  Direct Speech में Will दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Would में परिवर्तित करते हैं
4. यदि  Direct Speech में Can दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Could में परिवर्तित करते हैं
5. यदि  Direct Speech में May दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Might में परिवर्तित करते हैं
6. यदि  Direct Speech में Am / Is / Are दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Was / Were में परिवर्तित करते हैं
7. यदि  Direct Speech में Have / Has दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Had में परिवर्तित करते हैं
8.  यदि  Direct Speech में Had to + V1   दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में उसे Had had to + V1 में परिवर्तित करते हैं
9. यदि  Direct Speech  में Could , Should, Would, Might  दिया हो तो  Indirect Speech में कोई बदलाव नहीं होगा     
Table:
Direct Speech
Indirect  Speech
Will
Would
Shall
Should
Can
Could
May
Might
Could
No Change
Should
No Change
Would
No Change
Might
No Change

Examples:
Direct  - He said to me, "You can go"
Indirect  - He told me that I could go.
Direct  - They said to us , "We can repair Cars"
Indirect  - They told us that they could repair Cars.
Direct  - He said to us, "I will operate  a Machine"
Indirect  - He told us that he would operate a Machine.
Direct  - They said to him, "She shall tell about  the  hostel life"
Indirect  - They told him that she should tell about  the  hostel life 
Direct  - He said to me , "I must go college"
Indirect  - He told me that He must go college.

5. Change in Time : 
अगर Direct Speech के वाक्यों में समय दिया हो तो इस दिए गए टाइम को Indirect Speech में परिवर्तित करने के लिए निम्नलिखित टेबल के अनुसार परिवर्तन होगा |
Direct Speech -  Indirect Speech
Ago  -  Before
Today  - That day
Tomorrow   - The next day
Tonight  - That night
Yesterday -  The previous day
Last night   - The previous night
Last week   -  The previous week
Next week   -  The following week
Now    -  Then
The day before yesterday  -  The day before the previous day
The last fortnight  - The previous fortnight.
These  - Those
This -That
Thus   -  So
Hence  - Thence
Here  -  There
Hither   - Thither

Examples:
Direct  - He said, " I am buying a car today"
Indirect - He said that he was buy a car that day.
Direct  - She said, " I need your help in the examination now"
Indirect - She said that she needed my help in the examination then.

6. Universal truth or a habitual fact (सार्वभौमिक सत्य /तथ्य अथवा आदत)
यदि Direct Speech  में सार्वभौमिक सत्य / तथ्य या आदत  दिया हो , तो Indirect Speech बनाते समय इस तरह के वाक्य अपरिवर्तित रहते है।
Example:
Direct - Nyla said, "Honesty is the best policy."
Indirect - Nyla said that Honesty is the best policy.
Direct - Teacher said to students, "The sun rises in the East."
Indirect - Teacher told students that the sun rises in the East."
Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में Change करने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में Change करने के लिए महत्त्वपूर्ण नियम Reviewed by ADMIN on 23:37 Rating: 5

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